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Portugal Economy 2012

SOURCE: 2012 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES











Portugal Economy 2012
SOURCE: 2012 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on February 23,

Economy - overview:
Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community - the EU's predecessor - in 1986. Over the past two decades, successive governments have privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country qualified for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU members. The economy had grown by more than the EU average for much of the 1990s, but fell back in 2001-08, and contracted 2.5% in 2009, before growing 1.3% in 2010. But GDP fell again in 2011, as the government implemented austerity measures, including a 5% public salary cut, a 2% increase in the value-added tax, and an extraordinary tax on yearend bonuses to comply with conditions of an EU-IMF financial rescue package agreed to in May 2011. GDP per capita stands at roughly two-thirds of the EU-27 average. A poor educational system and a rigid labor market have been obstacles to greater productivity and growth. Portugal also has been increasingly overshadowed by lower-cost producers in Central Europe and Asia as a destination for foreign direct investment. Portugal's low competitiveness, low growth prospects, and high levels of public debt have made it vulnerable to bond market turbulence. The government reduced the budget deficit from 10.1% of GDP in 2009 to 4.5% in 2011, an achievement made possible only by the extraordinary revenues obtained from the one-time transfer of bank pension funds to the social security system. Investors, however, continue to express concern about the government's ability to achieve future budget deficit targets and obtain foreign financing to cover its sovereign debt obligations when the EU-IMF financing program expires in 2013. Without the option for stimulus measures, the government is focusing instead on boosting exports and implementing labor market and other structural reforms to try to raise GDP growth and increase Portugal's competitiveness - which, over time, may help mitigate investor concerns.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$246.9 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51

$252.5 billion (2010 est.)
$249.1 billion (2009 est.)
note: data are in 2011 US dollars
[see also: GDP country ranks ]

GDP (official exchange rate):
$241.9 billion (2011 est.)
[see also: GDP (official exchange rate) country ranks ]

GDP - real growth rate:
-2.2% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209

1.3% (2010 est.)
-2.5% (2009 est.)
[see also: GDP - real growth rate country ranks ]

GDP - per capita:
$23,200 (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58

$23,700 (2010 est.)
$23,400 (2009 est.)
note: data are in 2011 US dollars
[see also: GDP - per capita country ranks ]

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.5%
[see also: GDP - composition by sector - agriculture country ranks ]
industry: 22.8%
[see also: GDP - composition by sector - industry country ranks ]
services: 74.8% (2011 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition by sector - services country ranks ]

Labor force:
5.528 million (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
[see also: Labor force country ranks ]

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 11.7%
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - agriculture country ranks ]
industry: 28.5%
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - industry country ranks ]
services: 59.8% (2009 est.)
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - services country ranks ]

Unemployment rate:
12.4% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130

10.8% (2010 est.)
[see also: Unemployment rate country ranks ]

Population below poverty line:
18% (2006)
[see also: Population below poverty line country ranks ]

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.1%
[see also: Household income or consumption by percentage share - lowest 10% country ranks ]
highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)
[see also: Household income or consumption by percentage share - highest 10% country ranks ]

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
38.5 (2007)
country comparison to the world: 73

35.6 (1995)
[see also: Distribution of family income - Gini index country ranks ]

Investment (gross fixed):
17.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
[see also: Investment (gross fixed) country ranks ]

Budget:
revenues: $108.7 billion
[see also: Budget revenues country ranks ]
expenditures: $119.6 billion (2011 est.)
[see also: Budget expenditures country ranks ]

Taxes and other revenues:
44.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
[see also: Taxes and other revenues country ranks ]

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-4.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
[see also: Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) country ranks ]

Public debt:
103.3% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12

93.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
note: data cover general Government Debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by Government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
[see also: Public debt country ranks ]

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.2% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57

1.4% (2010 est.)
[see also: Inflation rate (consumer prices) country ranks ]

Central bank discount rate:
1.75% (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 125

1.75% (31 December 2009)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
[see also: Central bank discount rate country ranks ]

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
5.7% (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171

4.225% (31 December 2010 est.)
[see also: Commercial bank prime lending rate country ranks ]

Stock of narrow money:
$100.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33

$95.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
[see also: Stock of narrow money country ranks ]

Stock of broad money:
$345.7 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28

$319.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
[see also: Stock of broad money country ranks ]

Stock of domestic credit:
$556.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26

$490.8 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
[see also: Stock of domestic credit country ranks ]

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$82 billion (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 41

$98.65 billion (31 December 2009)
$68.71 billion (31 December 2008)
[see also: Market value of publicly traded shares country ranks ]

Agriculture - products:
grain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, dairy products; fish

Industries:
textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper, chemicals, auto-parts manufacturing, base metals, dairy products, wine and other foods, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
-1.6% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
[see also: Industrial production growth rate country ranks ]

Electricity - production:
46.53 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
[see also: Electricity - production country ranks ]

Electricity - consumption:
48.27 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
[see also: Electricity - consumption country ranks ]

Electricity - exports:
2.822 billion kWh (2009 est.)
[see also: Electricity - exports country ranks ]

Electricity - imports:
4.776 billion kWh (2009 est.)
[see also: Electricity - imports country ranks ]

Oil - production:
4,721 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
[see also: Oil - production country ranks ]

Oil - consumption:
277,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
[see also: Oil - consumption country ranks ]

Oil - exports:
49,650 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
[see also: Oil - exports country ranks ]

Oil - imports:
294,600 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
[see also: Oil - imports country ranks ]

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
[see also: Natural gas - production country ranks ]

Natural gas - consumption:
5.161 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
[see also: Natural gas - consumption country ranks ]

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
[see also: Natural gas - exports country ranks ]

Natural gas - imports:
5.122 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
[see also: Natural gas - imports country ranks ]

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
[see also: Natural gas - proved reserves country ranks ]

Current account balance:
-$20.4 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185

-$22.61 billion (2010 est.)
[see also: Current account balance country ranks ]

Exports:
$56.6 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56

$48.91 billion (2010 est.)
[see also: Exports country ranks ]

Exports - commodities:
agricultural products, food products, wine, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, hides, leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, machinery and tools

Exports - partners:
Spain 26.8%, Germany 13.1%, France 11.9%, UK 5.5%, Angola 5.2% (2010)

Imports:
$78.81 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40

$72.67 billion (2010 est.)
[see also: Imports country ranks ]

Imports - commodities:
agricultural products, chemical products, vehicles and other transport material, and optical and precision instruments, computer accessories and parts, semi-conductors and related devices

Imports - partners:
Spain 31.3%, Germany 13.8%, France 7.3%, Italy 5.7%, Netherlands 5.2% (2010)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$21 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57

$16.03 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
[see also: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold country ranks ]

Debt - external:
$548.3 billion (30 June 2011)
country comparison to the world: 23

$497.8 billion (30 June 2010)
[see also: Debt - external country ranks ]

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$109.8 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32

$110.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
[see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - at home country ranks ]

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$64.25 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31

$64.25 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
[see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad country ranks ]

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.7107 (2011 est.)
0.755 (2010 est.)
0.7198 (2009 est.)
0.6827 (2008 est.)
0.7345 (2007 est.)


NOTE: 1) The information regarding Portugal on this page is re-published from the 2012 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Portugal Economy 2012 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Portugal Economy 2012 should be addressed to the CIA.
2) The rank that you see is the CIA reported rank, which may habe the following issues:
  a) They assign increasing rank number, alphabetically for countries with the same value of the ranked item, whereas we assign them the same rank.
  b) The CIA sometimes assignes counterintuitive ranks. For example, it assigns unemployment rates in increasing order, whereas we rank them in decreasing order






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