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    Antarctica Transportation - 2004
    https://immigration-usa.com/wfb2004/antarctica/antarctica_transportation.html
    SOURCE: 2004 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

      Ports and harbors:
      there are no developed ports and harbors in Antarctica; most coastal stations have offshore anchorages, and supplies are transferred from ship to shore by small boats, barges, and helicopters; a few stations have a basic wharf facility; US coastal stations include McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E), Palmer (64 43 S, 64 03 W); government use only except by permit (see Permit Office under "Legal System"); all ships at port are subject to inspection in accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty; offshore anchorage is sparse and intermittent

      Airports:
      there are no developed public access airports or landing facilities; 30 stations, operated by 16 national governments party to the Antarctic Treaty, have restricted aircraft landing facilities for either helicopters and/or fixed-wing aircraft; commercial enterprises operate two additional aircraft landing facilities; helicopter pads are available at 27 stations; runways at 15 locations are gravel, sea-ice, blue-ice, or compacted snow suitable for landing wheeled, fixed-wing aircraft; of these, 1 is greater than 3 km in length, 6 are between 2 km and 3 km in length, 3 are between 1 km and 2 km in length, 3 are less than 1 km in length, and 2 are of unknown length; snow surface skiways, limited to use by ski-equipped, fixed-wing aircraft, are available at another 15 locations; of these, 4 are greater than 3 km in length, 3 are between 2 km and 3 km in length, 2 are between 1 km and 2 km in length, 2 are less than 1 km in length, and 4 are of unknown length; aircraft landing facilities generally subject to severe restrictions and limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions; aircraft landing facilities do not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the respective governmental or nongovernmental operating organization required for landing; landed aircraft are subject to inspection in accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty (2003 est.)

      Airports - with unpaved runways:
      total: 20
      over 3,047 m: 6
      2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
      914 to 1,523 m: 4
      under 914 m: 6 (2003 est.)
      1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

      Heliports:
      27 stations have restricted helicopter landing facilities (helipads) (2003 est.)


      NOTE: The information regarding Antarctica on this page is re-published from the 2004 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Antarctica Transportation 2004 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Antarctica Transportation 2004 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    https://immigration-usa.com/wfb2004/antarctica/antarctica_transportation.html

    Revised 21-May-04
    Copyright © 2004 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)


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