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    Canada Geography - 2004

      Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US

      Geographic coordinates:
      60 00 N, 95 00 W

      Map references:
      North America

      total: 9,984,670 sq km
      land: 9,093,507 sq km
      water: 891,163 sq km

      Area - comparative:
      somewhat larger than the US

      Land boundaries:
      total: 8,893 km
      border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

      202,080 km

      Maritime claims - as described in UNCLOS 1982 (see Notes and Definitions):
      territorial sea: 12 NM
      continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
      contiguous zone: 24 NM
      exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

      varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

      mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
      highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

      Natural resources:
      iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower

      Land use:
      arable land: 4.94%
      permanent crops: 0.02%
      other: 95.04% (1998 est.)

      Irrigated land:
      7,200 sq km (1998 est.)

      Natural hazards:
      continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains

      Environment - current issues:
      air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation

      Geography - note:
      second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 300 km of the US border

      NOTE: The information regarding Canada on this page is re-published from the 2004 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Canada Geography 2004 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Canada Geography 2004 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 21-May-04
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