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    India Geography - 2004

      Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan

      Geographic coordinates:
      20 00 N, 77 00 E

      Map references:

      total: 3,287,590 sq km
      land: 2,973,190 sq km
      water: 314,400 sq km

      Area - comparative:
      slightly more than one-third the size of the US

      Land boundaries:
      total: 14,103 km
      border countries: Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km

      7,000 km

      Maritime claims - as described in UNCLOS 1982 (see Notes and Definitions):
      territorial sea: 12 NM
      continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
      contiguous zone: 24 NM
      exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

      varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

      upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
      highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m

      Natural resources:
      coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land

      Land use:
      arable land: 54.35%
      permanent crops: 2.66%
      other: 42.99% (1998 est.)

      Irrigated land:
      590,000 sq km (1998 est.)

      Natural hazards:
      droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes

      Environment - current issues:
      deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
      signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

      Geography - note:
      dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes

      NOTE: The information regarding India on this page is re-published from the 2004 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of India Geography 2004 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about India Geography 2004 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 21-May-04
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