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    Turkey Geography - 2004

      southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria

      Geographic coordinates:
      39 00 N, 35 00 E

      Map references:
      Middle East

      total: 780,580 sq km
      water: 9,820 sq km
      land: 770,760 sq km

      Area - comparative:
      slightly larger than Texas

      Land boundaries:
      total: 2,648 km
      border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km

      7,200 km

      Maritime claims - as described in UNCLOS 1982 (see Notes and Definitions):
      territorial sea: 6 NM in the Aegean Sea; 12 NM in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
      exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR

      temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

      high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
      highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m

      Natural resources:
      coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower

      Land use:
      arable land: 34.53%
      permanent crops: 3.36%
      other: 62.11% (1998 est.)

      Irrigated land:
      42,000 sq km (1998 est.)

      Natural hazards:
      very severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van

      Environment - current issues:
      water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

      Geography - note:
      strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's Ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country

      NOTE: The information regarding Turkey on this page is re-published from the 2004 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Turkey Geography 2004 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Turkey Geography 2004 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 21-May-04
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