਍㰀栀攀愀搀㸀ഀഀ ਍一椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀 䜀漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀 ㈀ ㄀㈀Ⰰ 䌀䤀䄀 圀漀爀氀搀 䘀愀挀琀戀漀漀欀ഀഀ ਍㰀䴀䔀吀䄀 一䄀䴀䔀㴀∀䐀攀猀挀爀椀瀀琀椀漀渀∀  䌀伀一吀䔀一吀㴀∀一椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀 䜀漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀 ㈀ ㄀㈀Ⰰ 䌀䤀䄀 圀漀爀氀搀 䘀愀挀琀戀漀漀欀∀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀猀琀礀氀攀 琀礀瀀攀㴀∀琀攀砀琀⼀挀猀猀∀㸀ഀഀ A:link { text-decoration: none; color:#000066; }਍䄀㨀瘀椀猀椀琀攀搀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ搀攀挀漀爀愀琀椀漀渀㨀 渀漀渀攀㬀  挀漀氀漀爀㨀⌀    㘀㘀㬀 紀ഀഀ A:active { text-decoration: none; color:#000066; }਍䄀㨀栀漀瘀攀爀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ搀攀挀漀爀愀琀椀漀渀㨀 渀漀渀攀㬀 挀漀氀漀爀㨀⌀㤀㤀  ㌀㌀㬀 紀 ഀഀ a { text-decoration: none}਍㰀⼀猀琀礀氀攀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ
਍㰀猀挀爀椀瀀琀㸀⠀昀甀渀挀琀椀漀渀⠀搀Ⰰ 猀Ⰰ 椀搀⤀ 笀ഀഀ var js, fjs = d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0];਍  椀昀 ⠀搀⸀最攀琀䔀氀攀洀攀渀琀䈀礀䤀搀⠀椀搀⤀⤀ 爀攀琀甀爀渀㬀ഀഀ js = d.createElement(s); js.id = id;਍  樀猀⸀猀爀挀 㴀 ∀⼀⼀挀漀渀渀攀挀琀⸀昀愀挀攀戀漀漀欀⸀渀攀琀⼀攀渀开唀匀⼀愀氀氀⸀樀猀⌀砀昀戀洀氀㴀㄀☀愀瀀瀀䤀搀㴀㄀㠀㌀㘀 ㄀㐀㄀㔀 㠀㈀㄀㐀㘀∀㬀ഀഀ fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js, fjs);਍紀⠀搀漀挀甀洀攀渀琀Ⰰ ✀猀挀爀椀瀀琀✀Ⰰ ✀昀愀挀攀戀漀漀欀ⴀ樀猀猀搀欀✀⤀⤀㬀㰀⼀猀挀爀椀瀀琀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀琀愀戀氀攀  戀愀挀欀最爀漀甀渀搀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀㈀  㠀⼀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀搀爀甀最猀戀最爀⸀最椀昀∀ 眀椀搀琀栀㴀∀㤀㜀㈀∀ 愀氀椀最渀㴀∀琀漀瀀∀㸀㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀∀㈀∀ 眀椀搀琀栀㴀∀㤀㜀㈀∀㸀ഀഀ | COUNTRIES | GEOGRAPHIC NAMES | GEOLOGY | USA STATS | CHINA STATS | COUNTRY CODES | AIRPORTS | RELIGION | JOBS | ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀琀愀戀氀攀 戀漀爀搀攀爀㴀∀ ∀ 戀最挀漀氀漀爀㴀∀眀栀椀琀攀∀ 挀攀氀氀猀瀀愀挀椀渀最㴀∀ ∀ 挀攀氀氀瀀愀搀搀椀渀最㴀∀ ∀ 眀椀搀琀栀㴀∀㤀㜀㈀∀ 愀氀椀最渀㴀∀琀漀瀀∀ 瘀愀氀椀最渀㴀∀琀漀瀀∀ 栀猀瀀愀挀攀㴀∀ ∀ 瘀猀瀀愀挀攀㴀∀ ∀  甀渀椀琀猀㴀∀瀀椀砀攀氀猀∀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀琀搀 愀氀椀最渀㴀∀氀攀昀琀∀ 瘀愀氀椀最渀㴀∀琀漀瀀∀ 眀椀搀琀栀㴀∀㜀㈀㠀∀ 渀漀眀爀愀瀀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀猀挀爀椀瀀琀 琀礀瀀攀㴀∀琀攀砀琀⼀樀愀瘀愀猀挀爀椀瀀琀∀㸀㰀℀ⴀⴀഀഀ google_ad_client = "ca-pub-7437757543052749";਍⼀⨀ 圀䘀䈀 䰀攀愀搀攀爀戀漀愀爀搀 ⨀⼀ഀഀ google_ad_slot = "7548094546";਍最漀漀最氀攀开愀搀开眀椀搀琀栀 㴀 㜀㈀㠀㬀ഀഀ google_ad_height = 90;਍⼀⼀ⴀⴀ㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀猀挀爀椀瀀琀 琀礀瀀攀㴀∀琀攀砀琀⼀樀愀瘀愀猀挀爀椀瀀琀∀ഀഀ src="//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/show_ads.js">਍㰀⼀猀挀爀椀瀀琀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀㈀  㠀⼀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀氀椀渀攀㄀⸀最椀昀∀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀戀爀㸀㰀⼀昀漀渀琀㸀ഀഀ Nicaragua Government 2012਍㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀椀洀洀椀最爀愀琀椀漀渀ⴀ甀猀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀漀爀氀搀开昀愀挀琀开戀漀漀欀开㈀ ㄀㈀⼀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀⼀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀开最漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀⸀栀琀洀氀ഀഀ ਍㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ SOURCE: 2012 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES਍㰀琀爀 栀攀椀最栀琀㴀∀㌀∀ 愀氀椀最渀㴀∀氀攀昀琀∀ 瘀愀氀椀最渀㴀∀琀漀瀀∀ 戀最挀漀氀漀爀㴀∀眀栀椀琀攀∀ 渀漀眀爀愀瀀 甀渀椀琀猀㴀∀瀀椀砀攀氀猀∀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀㈀  㠀⼀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀氀椀渀攀㄀㌀⸀最椀昀∀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀琀愀戀氀攀 戀漀爀搀攀爀㴀∀ ∀ 戀最挀漀氀漀爀㴀∀⌀䘀䘀䌀䌀㤀㤀∀ 挀攀氀氀猀瀀愀挀椀渀最㴀∀ ∀ 挀攀氀氀瀀愀搀搀椀渀最㴀∀ ∀ 眀椀搀琀栀㴀∀㤀㜀㈀∀ 愀氀椀最渀㴀∀氀攀昀琀∀ 瘀愀氀椀最渀㴀∀琀漀瀀∀ 栀猀瀀愀挀攀㴀∀ ∀ 瘀猀瀀愀挀攀㴀∀ ∀  甀渀椀琀猀㴀∀瀀椀砀攀氀猀∀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀昀漀渀琀 昀愀挀攀㴀∀愀爀椀愀氀∀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ

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਍ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀戀爀㸀㰀戀爀㸀㰀戀爀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀഀ ਍ഀഀഀ ਍㰀栀爀㸀ഀഀഀ




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਍㰀⼀挀攀渀琀攀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀昀漀渀琀 昀愀挀攀㴀∀愀爀椀愀氀∀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀琀愀戀氀攀㸀㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀 眀椀搀琀栀㴀∀㌀㔀 ∀㸀ഀഀ GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES਍㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀琀搀 眀椀搀琀栀㴀∀㌀  ∀㸀ഀഀ Spanish਍㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀⸀最漀漀最氀攀⸀挀漀洀⼀琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀㼀甀㴀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀椀洀洀椀最爀愀琀椀漀渀ⴀ甀猀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀漀爀氀搀开昀愀挀琀开戀漀漀欀开㈀ ㄀㈀⼀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀⼀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀开最漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀⸀栀琀洀氀☀猀氀㴀攀渀☀琀氀㴀稀栀ⴀ䌀一☀椀攀㴀唀吀䘀ⴀ㠀☀漀攀㴀唀吀䘀ⴀ㠀∀ 琀愀爀最攀琀㴀∀开戀氀愀渀欀∀㸀㰀椀洀最 戀漀爀搀攀爀 㴀∀ ∀ 猀爀挀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀挀栀椀渀攀猀攀开琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀⸀最椀昀∀ 愀氀琀㴀∀匀椀洀瀀氀椀昀椀攀搀 䌀栀椀渀攀猀攀∀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ French਍㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀⸀最漀漀最氀攀⸀挀漀洀⼀琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀㼀甀㴀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀椀洀洀椀最爀愀琀椀漀渀ⴀ甀猀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀漀爀氀搀开昀愀挀琀开戀漀漀欀开㈀ ㄀㈀⼀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀⼀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀开最漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀⸀栀琀洀氀☀猀氀㴀攀渀☀琀氀㴀搀攀☀椀攀㴀唀吀䘀ⴀ㠀☀漀攀㴀唀吀䘀ⴀ㠀∀ 琀愀爀最攀琀㴀∀开戀氀愀渀欀∀㸀㰀椀洀最 戀漀爀搀攀爀 㴀∀ ∀ 猀爀挀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀最攀爀洀愀渀开琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀⸀最椀昀∀ 愀氀琀㴀∀䜀攀爀洀愀渀∀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ Russian਍㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀⸀最漀漀最氀攀⸀挀漀洀⼀琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀㼀甀㴀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀椀洀洀椀最爀愀琀椀漀渀ⴀ甀猀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀漀爀氀搀开昀愀挀琀开戀漀漀欀开㈀ ㄀㈀⼀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀⼀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀开最漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀⸀栀琀洀氀☀猀氀㴀攀渀☀琀氀㴀栀椀☀椀攀㴀唀吀䘀ⴀ㠀☀漀攀㴀唀吀䘀ⴀ㠀∀ 琀愀爀最攀琀㴀∀开戀氀愀渀欀∀㸀㰀椀洀最 戀漀爀搀攀爀 㴀∀ ∀ 猀爀挀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀栀椀渀搀椀开琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀⸀最椀昀∀ 愀氀琀㴀∀䠀椀渀搀椀∀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ Arabic਍㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀⸀最漀漀最氀攀⸀挀漀洀⼀琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀㼀甀㴀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀椀洀洀椀最爀愀琀椀漀渀ⴀ甀猀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀漀爀氀搀开昀愀挀琀开戀漀漀欀开㈀ ㄀㈀⼀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀⼀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀开最漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀⸀栀琀洀氀☀猀氀㴀攀渀☀琀氀㴀瀀琀☀椀攀㴀唀吀䘀ⴀ㠀☀漀攀㴀唀吀䘀ⴀ㠀∀ 琀愀爀最攀琀㴀∀开戀氀愀渀欀∀㸀㰀椀洀最 戀漀爀搀攀爀 㴀∀ ∀ 猀爀挀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀瀀漀爀琀甀最甀攀猀攀开琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀⸀最椀昀∀ 愀氀琀㴀∀倀漀爀琀甀最甀攀猀攀∀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀䠀刀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀猀挀爀椀瀀琀 琀礀瀀攀㴀∀琀攀砀琀⼀樀愀瘀愀猀挀爀椀瀀琀∀㸀㰀℀ⴀⴀഀഀ google_ad_client = "ca-pub-7437757543052749";਍⼀⨀ 圀䘀䈀 䰀愀爀最攀 刀攀挀琀愀渀最氀攀 ⨀⼀ഀഀ google_ad_slot = "8137512903";਍最漀漀最氀攀开愀搀开眀椀搀琀栀 㴀 ㌀㌀㘀㬀ഀഀ google_ad_height = 280;਍⼀⼀ⴀⴀ㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀猀挀爀椀瀀琀 琀礀瀀攀㴀∀琀攀砀琀⼀樀愀瘀愀猀挀爀椀瀀琀∀ഀഀ src="//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/show_ads.js">਍㰀⼀猀挀爀椀瀀琀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍倀愀最攀 氀愀猀琀 甀瀀搀愀琀攀搀 漀渀 䘀攀戀爀甀愀爀礀 ㈀㌀Ⰰഀഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

Country name:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀椀㸀挀漀渀瘀攀渀琀椀漀渀愀氀 氀漀渀最 昀漀爀洀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 刀攀瀀甀戀氀椀挀 漀昀 一椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀 ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀挀漀渀瘀攀渀琀椀漀渀愀氀 猀栀漀爀琀 昀漀爀洀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 一椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀氀漀挀愀氀 氀漀渀最 昀漀爀洀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 刀攀瀀甀戀氀椀挀愀 搀攀 一椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀氀漀挀愀氀 猀栀漀爀琀 昀漀爀洀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 一椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀眀昀戀㈀   ⼀搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀栀琀洀氀⌀最漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀开琀礀瀀攀∀㸀䜀漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀 琀礀瀀攀㨀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ republic਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

Capital:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀椀㸀渀愀洀攀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 䴀愀渀愀最甀愀ഀ ਍ഀ
geographic coordinates: 12 09 N, 86 17 W਍ ഀ
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

Administrative divisions:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ㄀㔀 搀攀瀀愀爀琀洀攀渀琀猀 ⠀搀攀瀀愀爀琀愀洀攀渀琀漀猀Ⰰ 猀椀渀最甀氀愀爀 ⴀ 搀攀瀀愀爀琀愀洀攀渀琀漀⤀ 愀渀搀 ㈀ 愀甀琀漀渀漀洀漀甀猀 爀攀最椀漀渀猀⨀ ⠀爀攀最椀漀渀攀猀 愀甀琀漀渀漀洀椀猀琀愀猀Ⰰ 猀椀渀最甀氀愀爀 ⴀ 爀攀最椀漀渀 愀甀琀漀渀漀洀愀⤀㬀 䄀琀氀愀渀琀椀挀漀 一漀爀琀攀⨀Ⰰ 䄀琀氀愀渀琀椀挀漀 匀甀爀⨀Ⰰ 䈀漀愀挀漀Ⰰ 䌀愀爀愀稀漀Ⰰ 䌀栀椀渀愀渀搀攀最愀Ⰰ 䌀栀漀渀琀愀氀攀猀Ⰰ 䔀猀琀攀氀椀Ⰰ 䜀爀愀渀愀搀愀Ⰰ 䨀椀渀漀琀攀最愀Ⰰ 䰀攀漀渀Ⰰ 䴀愀搀爀椀稀Ⰰ 䴀愀渀愀最甀愀Ⰰ 䴀愀猀愀礀愀Ⰰ 䴀愀琀愀最愀氀瀀愀Ⰰ 一甀攀瘀愀 匀攀最漀瘀椀愀Ⰰ 刀椀漀 匀愀渀 䨀甀愀渀Ⰰ 刀椀瘀愀猀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀眀昀戀㈀   ⼀搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀栀琀洀氀⌀椀渀搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀挀攀∀㸀䤀渀搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀挀攀㨀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ 15 September 1821 (from Spain)਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

National holiday:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 䤀渀搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀挀攀 䐀愀礀Ⰰ ㄀㔀 匀攀瀀琀攀洀戀攀爀 ⠀㄀㠀㈀㄀⤀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀眀昀戀㈀   ⼀搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀栀琀洀氀⌀挀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀琀椀漀渀∀㸀䌀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀琀椀漀渀㨀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ 9 January 1987; revised in 1995, 2000, and 2005਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

Legal system:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 挀椀瘀椀氀 氀愀眀 猀礀猀琀攀洀㬀 匀甀瀀爀攀洀攀 䌀漀甀爀琀 洀愀礀 爀攀瘀椀攀眀 愀搀洀椀渀椀猀琀爀愀琀椀瘀攀 愀挀琀猀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀眀昀戀㈀   ⼀搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀栀琀洀氀⌀椀渀琀攀爀渀愀琀椀漀渀愀氀开氀愀眀开漀爀最愀渀椀稀愀琀椀漀渀开瀀愀爀琀椀挀椀瀀愀琀椀漀渀∀㸀䤀渀琀攀爀渀愀琀椀漀渀愀氀 氀愀眀 漀爀最愀渀椀稀愀琀椀漀渀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀椀瀀愀琀椀漀渀㨀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

Suffrage:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ㄀㘀 礀攀愀爀猀 漀昀 愀最攀㬀 甀渀椀瘀攀爀猀愀氀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ഀഀ
[see also: Suffrage country ranks ]਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀开挀栀椀攀昀猀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀䔀砀攀挀甀琀椀瘀攀 戀爀愀渀挀栀㰀⼀愀㸀㨀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ chief of state: President Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (since 10 January 2007); Vice President Moises Omar HALLESLEVENS Acevedo (since 10 January 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government਍ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀栀攀愀搀 漀昀 最漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 倀爀攀猀椀搀攀渀琀 䐀愀渀椀攀氀 伀刀吀䔀䜀䄀 匀愀愀瘀攀搀爀愀 ⠀猀椀渀挀攀 ㄀  䨀愀渀甀愀爀礀 ㈀  㜀⤀㬀 嘀椀挀攀 倀爀攀猀椀搀攀渀琀 䴀漀椀猀攀猀 伀洀愀爀 䠀䄀䰀䰀䔀匀䰀䔀嘀䔀一匀 䄀挀攀瘀攀搀漀 ⠀猀椀渀挀攀 ㄀  䨀愀渀甀愀爀礀 ㈀ ㄀㈀⤀ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀挀愀戀椀渀攀琀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 䌀漀甀渀挀椀氀 漀昀 䴀椀渀椀猀琀攀爀猀 愀瀀瀀漀椀渀琀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀椀搀攀渀琀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀攀氀攀挀琀椀漀渀猀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 瀀爀攀猀椀搀攀渀琀 愀渀搀 瘀椀挀攀 瀀爀攀猀椀搀攀渀琀 攀氀攀挀琀攀搀 漀渀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 琀椀挀欀攀琀 戀礀 瀀漀瀀甀氀愀爀 瘀漀琀攀 昀漀爀 愀 昀椀瘀攀ⴀ礀攀愀爀 琀攀爀洀 ⠀攀氀椀最椀戀氀攀 昀漀爀 愀 猀攀挀漀渀搀 琀攀爀洀 猀漀 氀漀渀最 愀猀 椀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀 挀漀渀猀攀挀甀琀椀瘀攀⤀㬀 攀氀攀挀琀椀漀渀 氀愀猀琀 栀攀氀搀 漀渀 㘀 一漀瘀攀洀戀攀爀 ㈀ ㄀㄀ ⠀渀攀砀琀 琀漀 戀攀 栀攀氀搀 戀礀 一漀瘀攀洀戀攀爀 ㈀ ㄀㘀⤀ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀攀氀攀挀琀椀漀渀 爀攀猀甀氀琀猀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 䐀愀渀椀攀氀 伀刀吀䔀䜀䄀 匀愀愀瘀攀搀爀愀 爀攀攀氀攀挀琀攀搀 瀀爀攀猀椀搀攀渀琀㬀 瀀攀爀挀攀渀琀 漀昀 瘀漀琀攀 ⴀ 䐀愀渀椀攀氀 伀刀吀䔀䜀䄀 匀愀愀瘀攀搀爀愀 㘀㈀⸀㔀─Ⰰ 䘀愀戀椀漀 䜀䄀䐀䔀䄀 ㌀㄀─Ⰰ 䄀爀渀漀氀搀漀 䄀䰀䔀䴀䄀一 㔀⸀㤀─Ⰰ 漀琀栀攀爀  ⸀㘀─ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀眀昀戀㈀   ⼀搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀栀琀洀氀⌀氀攀最椀猀氀愀琀椀瘀攀开戀爀愀渀挀栀∀㸀䰀攀最椀猀氀愀琀椀瘀攀 戀爀愀渀挀栀㨀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (92 seats; 90 members elected by proportional representation and party lists to serve five-year terms; 1 seat for the previous president, 1 seat for the runner-up in previous presidential election)਍ ഀ
elections: last held on 5 November 2006 (next to be held by November 2011)਍ ഀ
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FSLN 38, PLC 25, ALN 24, MRS 5; note - political parties have been reorganized to reflect the following seat distribution: as of 1 March 2011 - seats by party - FSLN 37, PLC 20, BDN 13, ALN 7, MRS 4, BUN 5, Independent 6਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀眀昀戀㈀   ⼀搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀栀琀洀氀⌀樀甀搀椀挀椀愀氀开戀爀愀渀挀栀∀㸀䨀甀搀椀挀椀愀氀 戀爀愀渀挀栀㨀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ Supreme Court or Corte Suprema de Justicia (16 judges elected for five-year terms by the National Assembly); note - in 2010, President Ortega directly replaced seven justices on the Supreme Court਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

Political parties and leaders:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 䌀漀渀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀瘀攀 倀愀爀琀礀 漀爀 倀䌀 嬀䄀氀攀樀愀渀搀爀漀 䈀伀䰀䄀一伀匀 䐀愀瘀椀猀崀㬀 䤀渀搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀琀 䰀椀戀攀爀愀氀 倀愀爀琀礀 漀爀 倀䰀䤀 嬀䤀渀搀愀氀攀挀椀漀 刀伀䐀刀䤀䜀唀䔀娀崀㬀 䰀椀戀攀爀愀氀 䌀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀琀椀漀渀愀氀椀猀琀 倀愀爀琀礀 漀爀 倀䰀䌀 嬀䨀漀爀最攀 䌀䄀匀吀䤀䰀䰀伀 儀甀愀渀琀崀㬀 一椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀渀 䰀椀戀攀爀愀氀 䄀氀氀椀愀渀挀攀 漀爀 䄀䰀一 嬀䄀氀攀樀愀渀搀爀漀 䴀䔀䨀䤀䄀 䘀攀爀爀攀琀椀崀㬀 匀愀渀搀椀渀椀猀琀愀 一愀琀椀漀渀愀氀 䰀椀戀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀 䘀爀漀渀琀 漀爀 䘀匀䰀一 嬀䐀愀渀椀攀氀 伀刀吀䔀䜀䄀 匀愀愀瘀攀搀爀愀崀㬀 匀愀渀搀椀渀椀猀琀愀 刀攀渀漀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 䴀漀瘀攀洀攀渀琀 漀爀 䴀刀匀 嬀䔀渀爀椀焀甀攀 匀䄀䔀一娀ⴀ一䄀嘀䄀刀刀䔀吀䔀崀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀眀昀戀㈀   ⼀搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀栀琀洀氀⌀瀀漀氀椀琀椀挀愀氀开瀀爀攀猀猀甀爀攀开最爀漀甀瀀猀开愀渀搀开氀攀愀搀攀爀猀∀㸀倀漀氀椀琀椀挀愀氀 瀀爀攀猀猀甀爀攀 最爀漀甀瀀猀 愀渀搀 氀攀愀搀攀爀猀㨀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ National Workers Front or FNT (a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions including: Farm Workers Association or ATC, Health Workers Federation or FETASALUD, Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO, National Association of Educators of Nicaragua or ANDEN, National Union of Employees or UNE, National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG, Sandinista Workers Central or CST, and Union of Journalists of Nicaragua or UPN); Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT (an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions including: Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers Central or CTN-A, Confederation of Labor Unification or CUS, Independent General Confederation of Labor or CGT-I, and Labor Action and Unity Central or CAUS); Nicaraguan Workers' Central or CTN (an independent labor union); Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP (a confederation of business groups)਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

International organization participation:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 䈀䌀䤀䔀Ⰰ 䌀䄀䌀䴀Ⰰ 䌀䔀䰀䄀䌀Ⰰ 䘀䄀伀Ⰰ 䜀ⴀ㜀㜀Ⰰ 䤀䄀䐀䈀Ⰰ 䤀䄀䔀䄀Ⰰ 䤀䈀刀䐀Ⰰ 䤀䌀䄀伀Ⰰ 䤀䌀刀䴀Ⰰ 䤀䐀䄀Ⰰ 䤀䘀䄀䐀Ⰰ 䤀䘀䌀Ⰰ 䤀䘀刀䌀匀Ⰰ 䤀䰀伀Ⰰ 䤀䴀䘀Ⰰ 䤀䴀伀Ⰰ 䤀渀琀攀爀瀀漀氀Ⰰ 䤀伀䌀Ⰰ 䤀伀䴀Ⰰ 䤀倀唀Ⰰ 䤀吀匀伀Ⰰ 䤀吀唀Ⰰ 䤀吀唀䌀Ⰰ 䰀䄀䔀匀Ⰰ 䰀䄀䤀䄀 ⠀漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀爀⤀Ⰰ 䴀䤀䜀䄀Ⰰ 一䄀䴀Ⰰ 伀䄀匀Ⰰ 伀倀䄀一䄀䰀Ⰰ 伀倀䌀圀Ⰰ 倀䌀䄀Ⰰ 倀攀琀爀漀挀愀爀椀戀攀Ⰰ 匀䤀䌀䄀Ⰰ 唀一Ⰰ 唀一䌀吀䄀䐀Ⰰ 唀一䔀匀䌀伀Ⰰ 唀一䠀䌀刀Ⰰ 唀一䤀䐀伀Ⰰ 唀渀椀漀渀 䰀愀琀椀渀愀Ⰰ 唀一圀吀伀Ⰰ 唀倀唀Ⰰ 圀䌀伀Ⰰ 圀䠀伀Ⰰ 圀䤀倀伀Ⰰ 圀䴀伀Ⰰ 圀吀伀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀眀昀戀㈀   ⼀搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀栀琀洀氀⌀搀椀瀀氀漀洀愀琀椀挀开爀攀瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀愀琀椀漀渀开椀渀开琀栀攀开甀猀∀㸀䐀椀瀀氀漀洀愀琀椀挀 爀攀瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀愀琀椀漀渀 椀渀 琀栀攀 唀匀㨀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco Obadiah CAMPBELL Hooker਍ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀挀栀愀渀挀攀爀礀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 ㄀㘀㈀㜀 一攀眀 䠀愀洀瀀猀栀椀爀攀 䄀瘀攀渀甀攀 一圀Ⰰ 圀愀猀栀椀渀最琀漀渀Ⰰ 䐀䌀 ㈀   㤀ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀琀攀氀攀瀀栀漀渀攀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 嬀㄀崀 ⠀㈀ ㈀⤀ 㤀㌀㤀ⴀ㘀㔀㜀 Ⰰ 㘀㔀㜀㌀ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀䘀䄀堀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 嬀㄀崀 ⠀㈀ ㈀⤀ 㤀㌀㤀ⴀ㘀㔀㐀㔀ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀挀漀渀猀甀氀愀琀攀⠀猀⤀ 最攀渀攀爀愀氀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 䠀漀甀猀琀漀渀Ⰰ 䰀漀猀 䄀渀最攀氀攀猀Ⰰ 䴀椀愀洀椀Ⰰ 一攀眀 夀漀爀欀Ⰰ 匀愀渀 䘀爀愀渀挀椀猀挀漀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀眀昀戀㈀   ⼀搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀栀琀洀氀⌀搀椀瀀氀漀洀愀琀椀挀开爀攀瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀愀琀椀漀渀开昀爀漀洀开琀栀攀开甀猀∀㸀䐀椀瀀氀漀洀愀琀椀挀 爀攀瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀愀琀椀漀渀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 唀匀㨀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)਍ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀攀洀戀愀猀猀礀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 䬀椀氀漀洀攀琀攀爀 㔀⸀㔀 䌀愀爀爀攀琀攀爀愀 匀甀爀Ⰰ 䴀愀渀愀最甀愀ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀洀愀椀氀椀渀最 愀搀搀爀攀猀猀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 䄀洀攀爀椀挀愀渀 䔀洀戀愀猀猀礀 䴀愀渀愀最甀愀Ⰰ 䄀倀伀 䄀䄀 ㌀㐀 ㈀㄀ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀琀攀氀攀瀀栀漀渀攀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 嬀㔀 㔀崀 ㈀㔀㈀ⴀ㜀㄀  Ⰰ ㈀㔀㈀ⴀ㜀㠀㠀㠀㬀 ㈀㔀㈀ⴀ㜀㘀㌀㐀 ⠀愀昀琀攀爀 栀漀甀爀猀⤀ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀䘀䄀堀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 嬀㔀 㔀崀 ㈀㔀㈀ⴀ㜀㌀ 㐀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀昀氀愀最猀⼀∀㸀䘀氀愀最㰀⼀愀㸀 搀攀猀挀爀椀瀀琀椀漀渀㨀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; the banner is based on the former blue-white-blue flag of the Federal Republic of Central America; the blue bands symbolize the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, while the white band represents the land between the two bodies of water਍ ഀ
਍ 㰀攀洀㸀渀漀琀攀㨀㰀⼀攀洀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 猀椀洀椀氀愀爀 琀漀 琀栀攀 昀氀愀最 漀昀 䔀氀 匀愀氀瘀愀搀漀爀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 昀攀愀琀甀爀攀猀 愀 爀漀甀渀搀 攀洀戀氀攀洀 攀渀挀椀爀挀氀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 眀漀爀搀猀 刀䔀倀唀䈀䰀䤀䌀䄀 䐀䔀 䔀䰀 匀䄀䰀嘀䄀䐀伀刀 䔀一 䰀䄀 䄀䴀䔀刀䤀䌀䄀 䌀䔀一吀刀䄀䰀 挀攀渀琀攀爀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 眀栀椀琀攀 戀愀渀搀㬀 愀氀猀漀 猀椀洀椀氀愀爀 琀漀 琀栀攀 昀氀愀最 漀昀 䠀漀渀搀甀爀愀猀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 栀愀猀 昀椀瘀攀 戀氀甀攀 猀琀愀爀猀 愀爀爀愀渀最攀搀 椀渀 愀渀 堀 瀀愀琀琀攀爀渀 挀攀渀琀攀爀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 眀栀椀琀攀 戀愀渀搀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀眀昀戀㈀   ⼀搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀栀琀洀氀⌀渀愀琀椀漀渀愀氀开猀礀洀戀漀氀∀㸀一愀琀椀漀渀愀氀 猀礀洀戀漀氀⠀猀⤀㨀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ turquoise-browed motmot (bird)਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

National anthem:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀椀㸀渀愀洀攀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 ∀匀愀氀瘀攀 愀 琀椀Ⰰ 一椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀∀ ⠀䠀愀椀氀 琀漀 吀栀攀攀Ⰰ 一椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀⤀ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ഀ

਍㰀猀挀爀椀瀀琀 琀礀瀀攀㴀∀琀攀砀琀⼀樀愀瘀愀猀挀爀椀瀀琀∀ 猀爀挀㴀∀樀眀瀀氀愀礀攀爀⸀樀猀∀㸀㰀⼀猀挀爀椀瀀琀㸀ഀ ਍ഀ
lyrics/music: Salomon Ibarra MAYORGA/traditional, arranged by Luis Abraham DELGADILLO਍ ഀ
਍ 㰀攀洀㸀渀漀琀攀㨀㰀⼀攀洀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 愀氀琀栀漀甀最栀 漀渀氀礀 漀昀昀椀挀椀愀氀氀礀 愀搀漀瀀琀攀搀 椀渀 ㄀㤀㜀㄀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 洀甀猀椀挀 眀愀猀 愀瀀瀀爀漀瘀攀搀 椀渀 ㄀㤀㄀㠀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 氀礀爀椀挀猀 椀渀 ㄀㤀㌀㤀㬀 琀栀攀 琀甀渀攀Ⰰ 漀爀椀最椀渀愀氀氀礀 昀爀漀洀 匀瀀愀椀渀Ⰰ 眀愀猀 甀猀攀搀 愀猀 愀渀 愀渀琀栀攀洀 昀漀爀 一椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 ㄀㠀㌀ ∀猀 甀渀琀椀氀 ㄀㠀㜀㘀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀഀ ਍㰀⼀昀漀渀琀㸀ഀഀ

਍㰀瀀㸀 ഀഀ
਍㰀倀㸀ഀഀ ਍一伀吀䔀㨀 吀栀攀 椀渀昀漀爀洀愀琀椀漀渀 爀攀最愀爀搀椀渀最 一椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀 漀渀 琀栀椀猀 瀀愀最攀 椀猀 爀攀ⴀ瀀甀戀氀椀猀栀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 ㈀ ㄀㈀ 圀漀爀氀搀 䘀愀挀琀 䈀漀漀欀 漀昀 琀栀攀 唀渀椀琀攀搀 匀琀愀琀攀猀 䌀攀渀琀爀愀氀 䤀渀琀攀氀氀椀最攀渀挀攀 䄀最攀渀挀礀⸀ 一漀 挀氀愀椀洀猀 愀爀攀 洀愀搀攀 爀攀最愀爀搀椀渀最 琀栀攀 愀挀挀甀爀愀挀礀 漀昀 一椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀 䜀漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀 ㈀ ㄀㈀ 椀渀昀漀爀洀愀琀椀漀渀 挀漀渀琀愀椀渀攀搀 栀攀爀攀⸀ 䄀氀氀 猀甀最最攀猀琀椀漀渀猀 昀漀爀 挀漀爀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 愀渀礀 攀爀爀漀爀猀 愀戀漀甀琀 一椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀 䜀漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀 ㈀ ㄀㈀ 猀栀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 愀搀搀爀攀猀猀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 䌀䤀䄀⸀ ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ

਍ഀഀ
਍㰀栀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍ ⴀ 倀氀攀愀猀攀 戀漀漀欀洀愀爀欀 琀栀椀猀 瀀愀最攀 ⠀愀搀搀 椀琀 琀漀 礀漀甀爀 昀愀瘀漀爀椀琀攀猀⤀⸀ഀഀ
਍ ⴀ 䤀昀 礀漀甀 眀椀猀栀 琀漀 㰀戀㸀氀椀渀欀㰀⼀戀㸀 琀漀 琀栀椀猀 瀀愀最攀Ⰰ 礀漀甀 挀愀渀 搀漀 猀漀 戀礀 爀攀昀攀爀爀椀渀最 琀漀 琀栀攀 唀刀䰀 愀搀搀爀攀猀猀 戀攀氀漀眀 琀栀椀猀 氀椀渀攀⸀㰀⼀昀漀渀琀㸀ഀഀ
਍栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀椀洀洀椀最爀愀琀椀漀渀ⴀ甀猀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀漀爀氀搀开昀愀挀琀开戀漀漀欀开㈀ ㄀㈀⼀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀⼀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀开最漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀⸀栀琀洀氀ഀഀ

਍吀栀椀猀 瀀愀最攀 眀愀猀 氀愀猀琀 洀漀搀椀昀椀攀搀  㜀ⴀ䴀愀爀ⴀ㄀㈀ 㰀戀爀㸀 ഀഀ Copyright © 1995-2012 ITA all rights reserved.਍㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀琀搀 眀椀搀琀栀㴀㈀   瘀愀氀椀最渀㴀∀琀漀瀀∀ 愀氀椀最渀㴀∀氀攀昀琀∀ 戀愀挀欀最爀漀甀渀搀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀㈀  㠀⼀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀氀椀最栀琀开戀氀甀攀⸀最椀昀∀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀℀ⴀⴀ 匀椀琀攀匀攀愀爀挀栀 䜀漀漀最氀攀 ⴀⴀ㸀ഀഀഀ
਍ഀഀഀ
਍㰀⼀昀漀爀洀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀昀漀渀琀 猀椀稀攀㴀∀㈀∀ 昀愀挀攀㴀∀愀爀椀愀氀∀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀甀氀㸀ഀഀ
  • |Main INDEX|਍㰀氀椀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀⸀⸀⼀椀渀搀攀砀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀㈀ ㄀㈀ 䤀一䐀䔀堀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ
  • Country Ranks਍㰀氀椀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀眀昀戀㈀   ⼀搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀䐀䔀䘀䤀一䤀吀䤀伀一匀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ

    ਍㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀椀渀搀攀砀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀一椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀 䤀渀搀攀砀 ㈀ ㄀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ

    ਍㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀挀甀爀爀攀渀琀⼀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀⼀椀渀搀攀砀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀一椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀 䴀愀椀渀 䤀渀搀攀砀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ
  • Introduction਍㰀氀椀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀漀爀欀洀愀氀氀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀㈀  ㄀⼀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀⼀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀开栀椀猀琀漀爀礀开椀渀搀攀砀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀䠀椀猀琀漀爀礀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ
  • Geography ਍㰀氀椀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀瀀栀漀琀椀甀猀⸀挀漀洀⼀挀漀甀渀琀爀椀攀猀⼀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀⼀挀氀椀洀愀琀攀⼀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀开挀氀椀洀愀琀攀开挀氀椀洀愀琀攀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀䌀氀椀洀愀琀攀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ
  •   Maps
    ਍ഀഀ
  • People
    ਍㰀⼀戀㸀ഀഀ   Religion਍㰀戀㸀㰀氀椀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀开最漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀䜀漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀戀爀㸀㰀⼀䈀㸀ഀഀ ਍☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀开挀栀椀攀昀猀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀 䜀漀瘀⸀ 䰀攀愀搀攀爀猀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ
     Flags਍㰀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀氀椀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀开攀挀漀渀漀洀礀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀䔀挀漀渀漀洀礀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ
  • Communications਍㰀氀椀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀开琀爀愀渀猀瀀漀爀琀愀琀椀漀渀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀吀爀愀渀猀瀀漀爀琀愀琀椀漀渀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ
    ਍☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀瀀栀漀琀椀甀猀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀㈀  ㄀⼀愀椀爀瀀漀爀琀开挀漀搀攀猀开愀氀瀀栀愀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀䄀椀爀瀀漀爀琀 䌀漀搀攀猀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀氀椀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀渀椀挀愀爀愀最甀愀开洀椀氀椀琀愀爀礀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀䴀椀氀椀琀愀爀礀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ
  • Transnational Issues਍㰀氀椀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀瀀栀漀琀漀猀⼀∀㸀倀栀漀琀漀猀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀甀氀㸀㰀䄀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀眀眀愀搀猀⸀栀琀洀氀∀ 琀愀爀最攀琀㴀∀开戀氀愀渀欀∀㸀䄀搀瘀攀爀琀椀猀攀 䠀攀爀攀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀甀氀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀甀氀㸀 ⸀ 㰀䄀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀开昀攀攀搀戀愀挀欀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀䘀攀攀搀戀愀挀欀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀戀爀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀∀昀戀ⴀ氀椀欀攀∀ 搀愀琀愀ⴀ猀攀渀搀㴀∀昀愀氀猀攀∀ 搀愀琀愀ⴀ氀愀礀漀甀琀㴀∀戀甀琀琀漀渀开挀漀甀渀琀∀ 搀愀琀愀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㴀∀㠀 ∀ 搀愀琀愀ⴀ猀栀漀眀ⴀ昀愀挀攀猀㴀∀昀愀氀猀攀∀㸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀ഀഀ

    ਍㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀猀㨀⼀⼀琀眀椀琀琀攀爀⸀挀漀洀⼀猀栀愀爀攀∀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀∀琀眀椀琀琀攀爀ⴀ猀栀愀爀攀ⴀ戀甀琀琀漀渀∀ 搀愀琀愀ⴀ挀漀甀渀琀㴀∀渀漀渀攀∀㸀吀眀攀攀琀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀戀爀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ
    ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀⼀戀㸀ഀഀ
    ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀⼀戀漀搀礀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ