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    Syria Geography - 2004

      Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Lebanon and Turkey

      Geographic coordinates:
      35 00 N, 38 00 E

      Map references:
      Middle East

      total: 185,180 sq km
      note: includes 1,295 sq km of Israeli-occupied territory
      water: 1,130 sq km
      land: 184,050 sq km

      Area - comparative:
      slightly larger than North Dakota

      Land boundaries:
      total: 2,253 km
      border countries: Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km, Jordan 375 km, Lebanon 375 km, Turkey 822 km

      193 km

      Maritime claims - as described in UNCLOS 1982 (see Notes and Definitions):
      territorial sea: 12 NM
      contiguous zone: 41 NM

      mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically in Damascus

      primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain; mountains in west

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: unnamed location near Lake Tiberias -200 m
      highest point: Mount Hermon 2,814 m

      Natural resources:
      petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum, hydropower

      Land use:
      arable land: 25.96%
      permanent crops: 4.08%
      other: 69.96% (1998 est.)

      Irrigated land:
      12,130 sq km (1998 est.)

      Natural hazards:
      dust storms, sandstorms

      Environment - current issues:
      deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution from raw sewage and petroleum refining wastes; inadequate potable water

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

      Geography - note:
      there are 42 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights (February 2002 est.)

      NOTE: The information regarding Syria on this page is re-published from the 2004 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Syria Geography 2004 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Syria Geography 2004 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 21-May-04
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